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What is a diamond? What are the characteristics?

Many of my friends in the purchase of jewelry, often hear the "diamond" the word, probably means to understand is imitation diamond. In fact, diamond imitation diamond is only collectively, and diamond is a lot of distinction. So the so-called "diamond" in the end what is it? It and the real diamonds and what kind of difference? Here are the people in the market usually see the "diamond" type:
1, glass: ground into a glass of fake diamonds is easy to distinguish, because of its low refractive index, there is no true color of the kind of diamond flashing light, a little experience at a glance. And this "diamond" is often used in relatively cheap jewelry.
2, artificial spinel: it is the lack of diamond flashing color light, it dipped in diiodomethane, the outline will be blurred. The true diamond's outline is very clear.
3, man-made sapphire: colorless and transparent sapphire in the pondering can also be used as a substitute for diamonds. But it is in the "diiodomethane" almost disappear, and the edge of the real diablo dark, very clear.
4, crystal and topaz: These two kinds of natural mineral transparent crystal, after pondering with diamonds are similar, but the lack of diamonds bright brilliance. And they are "non-homogeneous body", and diamonds are "homogeneous body", with the polarimeter is easier to distinguish.
5, zircon: in the presence of artificial cubic zirconia, zircon is the best diamond substitutes. Zircon has a strong birefringence, that is, it has two refractive indices, and the difference between the two refractive indices is large. This produces a very special optical phenomenon, when using a magnifying glass to observe the polished zircon edge gem, its top surface can be seen at the bottom of the surface and ridge obvious double shadow. The diamond because it is "homogeneous body", no double shadow phenomenon.
6, cubic zirconia (ie, "the Soviet Union drilling"): This is the first introduced by the former Soviet Union the best diamond substitutes or impersonator, is a synthetic compound, no natural minerals. As the cubic zirconia in the refractive index, dispersion and other aspects of natural diamonds are very close. But its hardness is low (8.5) 1.6-1.7 times the proportion of diamonds, 5.6-6, and the thermal conductivity is much lower than diamonds, it can still be accurately with the instrument to distinguish it from diamonds.
We finally understand the "diamond" concept of the bar, in addition to "diamond" in the glass easier to distinguish, the other "diamond" is generally the most important thing to look glossy. Under normal circumstances, the brilliance of diamonds is unmatched by the "diamond" imitations (with the exception of strontium titanate fake diamonds and mosaic stones, which are even brighter than real diamonds). Suggest that everyone in the daily purchase, it is not allowed to do is not allowed to buy or in a professional authority with the certificate issued by the detection agency to buy.
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